Monday, 2 July 2012


The system development phase is a series of steps used to develop a database program.
These phases describe the processes that system developers carry out in order to develop a database program.


Analysis Phase
During the Analysis Phase, system developers will perform problem analysis by finding out the needs of target users.System developers also identify the input, process and output for the new system.
  • The Analysis Phase is the first phase of system development.
  • In this phase, the system developers would need to define problems faced by target users.
  • The target users will indicate their requirements. They need to give a description of what a system must do and the main functions of the system.
  • By doing this, the system developers can define the purpose of the system. It would help system developers set the focus of the system.
Design Phase
The Design Phase is the second phase in system development. It refers to the planning of the system design
Based on the needs of target users, the system developers will design an Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD). This phase is known as the Design Phase.

Implementation Phase
The Implementation Phase is the third phase of system development.
In the Implementation Phase, the system developers will convert the technical plan and design plan into a computer program.
Implementation Phase is the phase where system developers create database using database software.

Testing Phase
The system will be tested by the target users in the Testing Phase.If there is any error detected, the system developers will fix the error. 
  • Testing Phase is the fourth phase of system development. It involves the system developer and user in the Testing Phase.
  • To ensure the quality of a database, the system developers act as quality controllers and will run tests on it.
  • The purpose of system testing is to ensure the system runs correctly and is error free.
Documentation Phase
System developers will produce the documents for the program during the Documentation Phase.
Documentation refers to the written materials generated throughout phases of system development.

User Manual

 The User Manual helps the user to use the system.
User Manuals are written in simple language rather than technical language.
The User Manual should cover how to run the system, how to enter data, how to modify data and how to save and print reports.
The User Manual should include ways to overcome errors.

Technical Documentation

Technical Documentation is used by system developers as a reference.
Technical Documentation is useful for system improvement.
In Documentation Phase, User Manual and Technical Documentation are found in a folio. 
You need to gather all the documents from the system development phases into a folio.
You can compile your Technical Documentation in the form of a hard copy.
Documentation can also be gathered in a soft copy.
All documentation must be ready by the end the system development. The system developers should ensure that all documentation is complete and accurate.

Maintenance Phase
The system developers continue to provide support during the Maintenance Phase. They monitor the system performance and make changes when needed.
Documentation is very important when the system requires changes in the future. Documentation tells new system developers what was done in the program.
It helps to reduce the amount of time a new system developer spends learning about existing programs.
A number of documents are produced during the development of a new computer application

  • The Maintenance Phase is the last phase in system development.
  • Maintenance refers to the changes in the system by fixing or enhancing its
  • functionality.
  • System developers are involved in the Maintenance Phase.
  • System maintenance involves checking, changing and enhancing to improve its performance.
  • All systems need to be maintained to take care of new requirements that were not discovered previously.
  • Corrective Maintenance is changing maintenance carried out to repair an error in system design.
  • This maintenance is used when errors are detected and need to be rectified.
  • For example, in the School Resource System, you need to add the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) field.
  • Perfective Maintenance is a system maintenance performed to improve a
  • computer program.
  • Perfective Maintenance is done when the users require changes in the interfaces.
  • For example, in the School Resource System, you can modify the layout of the Book Form by changing the font colour, type, size and adding "Book Form" title.
  • Preventive Maintenance is a maintenance aimed at the prevention of future breakdowns and failures.
  • This maintenance is carried out  when there is a possibility or risk of failure while operating.
  • For example, in the School Resource System, you want to assign a password
  • before a user accesses the database.
  • Some users may only be allowed to view data in a particular Table.
  • Some may only be allowed to add records to a Table while others may be given the right to view and modify information.
  • The use of passwords thus helps to prevent unauthorised access to confidential information.
  • Preventive Maintenance needs to be done to avoid possible future problems.
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